Weronika B. Żukowska, Błażej Wójkiewicz, Monika Litkowiec, Witold Wachowiak
Cross-amplification and multiplexing of cpSSRs and nSSRs in two closely related pine species (Pinus sylvestris L. and P. mugo Turra)
Dendrobiology 2017, vol. 77: 59-64
Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are widespread molecular markers commonly used in population genetic studies. Nowadays, next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods allow identifying thousands of SSRs in one sequencing run, which greatly facilitates isolation and development of new SSRs. However, their usefulness as molecular markers still must be tested empirically on a number of populations to select SSRs with best parameters for future population genetic research. An alternative approach, cheaper and faster than isolation and characterization of new SSRs, involves cross-amplification of SSRs in closely related species. Our goal was to develop multiplex PCR protocols that will be useful in population genetic studies of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and dwarf mountain pine (P. mugo Turra), and possibly other pine species. We tested 14 chloroplast (cpSSRs) and 22 nuclear (nSSRs) microsatellite markers originally designed for Japanese black pine (P. thunbergii Parl.), P. sylvestris and loblolly pine (P. taeda L.) in four populations of P. sylvestris and P. mugo across different locations in Europe. We designed six multiplex PCRs, which were subsequently screened for their ability to provide repeatable and high quality amplification products using capillary electrophoresis. The transfer rate in our study was similar in both pine species, and it was very high for cpSSRs (93% and 86% for P. sylvestris and P. mugo, respectively) and moderate for nSSRs (59% for both species). We managed to design five well-performing multiplex reactions out of six initially tested. Most of the tested loci were polymorphic. Moreover, the allelic patterns detected at some cpSSRs were species-specific. We provide a set of five multiplexes which can be used in genetic studies of both P. sylvestris and P. mugo. Chloroplast marker PCP30277 is a good candidate for a cheap species diagnostic marker suitable for tracking interspecific gene flow between hybridizing species of P. sylvestris and P. mugo.
chloroplast microsatellites, dwarf mountain pine, hybridization, nuclear microsatellites, Scots pine